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Abono Organico Takakura

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Descripción:

La técnica de compostaje del Método Takakura, desarrollada por Koji Takakura, convierte la basura de la cocina en abono orgánico. En términos generales, El Compostaje Takakura es un método para reducción de residuos, procesando la basura orgánica por medio del compostaje y transformandola en abono orgánico.

En Costa Rica, miembros de nuestro Equipo CostaricanGurus, recibieron Capacitación sobre Compostaje Takakura, por Marianela Abarca, experta en el tema y colaboradora de la Unidad de Gestión Ambiental UCR.

La basura para este compost utilizada para este fin, por lo general es basura de la cocina, ramas y hojas de los árboles a través de la acción descomponedora de los microorganismos para convertirla en útil abono orgánico. En lugar de utilizar una bacteria de fermentación específica, se trata de un método de compostaje que utiliza bacterias de fermentación que pueden obtenerse a nivel local. Cultivando las bacterias de fermentación que se consiguen en cada lugar, como por ejemplo cáscaras de fruta, comida fermentada, salvado de arroz, cáscaras de arroz, estiércol, entre otras, se mezclan con basura orgánica y se fermentan naturalmente, lográndose la descomposición de la mayor parte de la porción orgánica en corto tiempo (principalmente en las regiones tropicales). El trabajo en sí se caracteriza por necesitar solamente revolverla para ajustar el nivel de ventilación y agua, y porque la materia también puede conseguirse a precios bajos. Existen varios vídeos en Youtube, que te enseñamos los pasos fundamentales para la elaboración y mantenimiento del método Takakura.


Description:

In the Takakura composting method, organic waste is broken down by micro-organisms that are cultivated from local materials. The method involves making a seed compost from fermented solutions and fermenting bed. Organic waste is mixed with the seed compost and left to degrade in a ventilated container or basket.

  1. Making a fermenting solution
    • Sugar fermentation solution:
      • 3 litres water, 200g jaggery (gula merah), one piece cubed tempe
      • Mix everything in an airtight container and leave for three to five days
    • Salt fermentation solution:
      • 3 litres water, 1 heapedd tablespoon salt, mixture of vegetable scraps and fruit peel
  2. Making the seed compost
    • Mix equal amounts of rice bran and rice husk to form a fermenting bed. Stir in sugar and salt fermenting solutions bit by bit, adjusting the moisture level to 40% to 60%
    • The moisture content is right if the mixture forms a lump without oozing out water when squeezed in the hand
    • Store mixture in a covered carton box for three to five days. The box should feel warm. When the content is covered with white mould, the fermentation is complete. Let mixture dry out. The seed compost is ready for use
  3. Making a compost container
    • A container of 60-litre capacity is suitable. It should have holes at the sides to allow air ventilation. Suitable containers: plastic crates, laundry baskets or storage boxes; or wicker laundry baskets
    • Line the inside of the container with thick paper carton or carpet to prevent spillage of compost and insect infestations
    • Fill the container to 60% capacity with seed compost. Leftover seed compost can be kept for future use
  4. Composting
    • Cut up your kitchen scraps. This will speed up fermentation. Drain excess liquid from chopped waste, and then stir into container of seed compost
      • Maintain the moisture content of the seed compost at 40%-60%. High moisture content will inhibit fermentation, resulting in offensive odors. If mixture is too wet (this can happen with large amounts of vegetable scraps), add orange, onion or garlic peel or bits of paper
    • Cover container with cloth to keep mixture warm and protected from insects. Stir the mixture once a day to intensify fermentation and inhibit the growth of putrefying micro-organisms. The chopped waste should lose their shape in 1-2 days. Repeat the process until the container is full
      • If steam rises while the content is being stirred, it indicates that the fermentation is progressing well, with the temperature reaching 40c to 50c. Fermentation slows down if the temperature is low. To raise the temperature: place the container inside a cardboard box or polystyrene container with holes; or put a plastic bottle of hot water in the container
    • When the container is full, transfer the content into a cardboard box or sack, leaving behind an ample amount as seed compost for your next round of composting. Store the removed compost for two weeks to allow it to mature
      • Using semi-mature compost (which has not fully decomposed) can damage plant roots because the fermentative micro-organisms are still active and will emit gas and organic acids
  5. Using compost
    • Compost gradually releases nutrients into the soil, thereby improving the soil environment
      • Spread the compost on the field, and plough it to a depth of about 20cm
      • Spread compost over soil, after planting crops
      • Bury compost to a depth of 20cm around a tree

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